Global Regions, Biological Diversity, and Urban Land to Significance


  • Dr. Alka Vyas Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Dr. Rakhi Dwivedi Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India



biodiversity, land, species loss, urbanization, priorities, habitat loss, global areas


As the world's urban population is expected to grow by 2.5 billion over the next 30 years, urban land conversions are likely to become a bigger cause of habitat and species loss. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the potential locations and mechanisms for these biodiversity losses in order to mitigate their impacts. In this study, we assess the projected habitat loss due to urban land expansion for 30,393 species of terrestrial vertebrates from 2015 to 2050 across three shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) scenarios using a recently developed suite of land-use projections. We discover that for about one-third (26–39%) of the species evaluated, urban land expansion is a contributing driver of habitat loss (5% of total loss). Urban land is a direct cause of species imperilment for up to 855 species (2–3% of those assessed), accounting for at least 25% of a net habitat loss of 10% or more. Sub-Saharan Africa, South America, Mesoamerica, and Southeast Asia are the major developing tropical regions where urban clusters are most likely to threaten species owing to anticipated expansion. Our findings imply that methods for reducing the effects of urban land could improve international agreements for the preservation of biodiversity. To mitigate the effects predicted by our analysis, cooperative, global action that prioritises vulnerable species and regions may constitute an effective tactic.


Download data is not yet available.


H. Gibb, & D. F. Hochuli. (2002). Habitat fragmentation in an urban environment: Large and small fragments support different arthropod assemblages. Biol. Conserv., 106, 91–100.

M. L. McKinney. (2006). Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biol. Conserv., 127, 247–260.

R. I. Mcdonald, P. Kareiva, & R. T. T. Forman. (2008). The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv., 141, 1695–1703.

Harrison, P. A. (2010). Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation: an introduction to the RUBICODE project. Biodivers. Conserv, 19, 2767–2772.

W. Jetz, J.M.McPherson, & R. P. Guralnick. (2012). Integrating biodiversity distribution knowledge: Toward a global map of life. Trends Ecol. Evol., 27, 151–159.

K. C. Seto et al. (2012). Urban land teleconnections and sustainability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109, 7687–7692.

J. Beninde, M. Veith, & A. Hochkirch. (2015). Biodiversity in cities needs space: A meta-analysis of factors determining intra-urban biodiversity variation. Ecol. Lett., 18, 581–592.

M. C. Urban et al. (2016). Improving the forecast for biodiversity under climate change. Science, 353, aad8466.

B. C. O’Neill et al. (2017). The roads ahead: Narratives for shared socioeconomic pathways describing world futures in the 21st century. Glob. Environ. Change, 42, 169–180.

J. van Vliet. (2019). Direct and indirect loss of natural area from urban expansion. Nat. Sustain., 2, 755–763.

Jung, M. et al. (2021). Areas of global importance for conserving terrestrial biodiversity, carbon and water. Nat. Ecol. Evol., 5, 1499–1509.

GLOBIO, Data from “Available GLOBIO4 scenario data.” GLOBIO. Accessed 2 March 2022.



How to Cite

Dr. Alka Vyas, & Dr. Rakhi Dwivedi. (2023). Global Regions, Biological Diversity, and Urban Land to Significance. Applied Science and Engineering Journal for Advanced Research, 2(2), 1–7.